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Hindu Calendar
Hindu Panchang


Panchang (Hindu Calendar) and its significance in our rich Indian culture can not be ignored. Have you ever pondered why Indians are obsessed with Shubh Muhurat? Why do Hindus have such perfect calculation for eclipses? The answer to all these questions is:  Panchang (Hindu calendar). Panchang is the foundation of all the rituals and tradition of Hinduism.

Hindu calendar is different from the Gregorian calendar. Our ancestors did deep research on it. They carried out elongated study to evolve out the concept of time.

Everything you need to know about Panchang

Hindu calendar is an indispensable part of every Hindu’s life. No one  can deny its existence and significance in our lives. Pre-historic era did not have any wrist watches or wall clocks. Our ancestors devised accurate calculations without using technology and fancy equipment.

Many cultures have devised the calculation of time based on lunar and solar movements. Their time calculations were based on the solar system all around the world.

Equally, our ancestors created a system to study the time in jyotish shastra. Here, the study of time is based on the movement of the Sun and the Moon to evolve the concept of day and night.

According to jyotish shastra, there is a defined set of calculations to see the movement of celestial bodies under Ganit Jyotish. Moreover, the effect and consequences of the movement of all the solar system is concluded in Falit jyotish.

Role of Jyotish (Indian Astrology) in Panchang

The extensive study is based on calculations and structuring the time, collecting information and data about days, months, years and the movement of all the celestial bodies. This particular shastra has made great contributions to study the impact of calculations of time.

Although jyotish shastra ( Indian astrology)  is way deeper and larger to study. We will be covering jyotish in detail in the coming days. 

To know the best propitious timings in our daily life

Undoubtedly, Panchang tells us about the Hindu rituals, fortunate time for marriage, ring ceremony, house warming, traditions, festivals, puja at workplace and home. The lunar year is based on the cyclic nature of the Moon.

Hindu calendar is lunisolar. Its calculations of time are based on cycles of the Sun (Movement of Earth in its orbit around the Sun) and the Moon (Moon revolutions around the Earth). Hindu calendar is also known as Panchangam. It is based on the cycles of the Moon, the Sun, constellations, movement of the solar system and galaxy.

Panchangam is also called panjika. There are many regional languages in India. There are many panchang in different regional languages followed at different parts of the country. Tamilians, Malayalis, Bengalis, Punjabis, Maharashtrians and others have different outlook of Hindu calendar.

Wondering what is New Year in Panchang?

Unlike 1st  January in Gregorian calendar, the new year in Hindu Panchang is celebrated at Gudi Padwa, Chaitra navratri padwa (samvat aarambh), Vishu, Baisakhi and Makar Sankratri. Different new year are celebrated at different times of the Gregorian calendar.

As a rule, we follow Vikram Samwat in our North India. Currently, we are running into 2080 Samvat. Samvat is the year as per Panchang. Samvat is 56.7 years ahead of the Gregorian calendar. We also have Yugas. Yuga refers to the generations or age of time. There have been four yugas namely Dwapara yuga, Treta yuga, Satya yuga and Kaliyuga. 

Amazing facts about Panchang

Furthermore, Panchang is all based on nakshatra (constellations), yoga, muhurta, shukla paksha, krishna paksha. AMAVASYA and PURNIMA are major days. Panchang tells us the day, month and year as per lunisolar calculations. The Gregorian calendar is fixed and based on the Sun. Whereas, the Hindu calendar is based on movement of the Sun and the  Moon. Cycle of day an night makes Ahortan and thus 8 pahar, 30 muhurat and kala in a single lunar day.

Little known elements of Panchang you need to know

Hindu calendar is based on Earth rotation (Vasrah), revolution of the Moon (Maas) and cyclic revolution of the Earth (Varsha).

There are 27 star clusters called constellations (Nakshatra) in the solar system with 12 zodiac signs (Rashi) and other astronomical bodies.

According to Surya Siddharta, panchang is a scientific study of time based on Indian vedic astrology. It is written by Lata dev, disciple of great mathematician, Aryabhatta. In 505 BCE, Indian researchers knew the rules to calculate the motion of various planets, the Moon, the Sun, constellations, diameters of various planets and orbits of celestial bodies before the advent of telescope.

Don’t miss out the day and the month in Panchang

Moreover, it also tells us the correct date of Eclipses. Hindu calendar has a lunar cycle of 29.5 days. This makes a month. And, 12 months make a year of 354 days. The lunar month starts from the day of the new moon (Purnima) in the North Indian calendar.

Comparably, the South Indian calendar marks the beginning of a new month with Amavasya. Sankranti refers to the time period where the Sun and the Moon transit from one constellation to another.

Additionally, there is a concept of Tithi in Hindu calendar. Here, the month is divided into two main aspects; Gaura or Shukla Paksha and Krishna Paksha. Shukla Paksha starts with the first day of the waxing phase of the moon. And, the Krishna Paksha starts with the waning  phase of the Moon.

Generally, all the auspicious and the blessed happenings are planned in the Shukla Paksha. As a result, this phase is considered fortunate and good because of its bright and higher energy levels of the moon after Amavasya.

Comparably, Krishna Paksha is observed not so good and auspicious. As the moon moves to the darker phase to Amavasya.

The ultimate list of Tithi

And, in between the days of each Paksha are called Tithi.These are called 

  • Pratham or Pratipada (first day)
  • Dwitiya (second day)
  • Tritiya (third day)
  • Chaturthi (fourth day)
  • Panchami ( fifth day)
  • Chatting or Sashthi (sixth day)
  • Saptami (seventh day)
  • Ashtami (eighth day)
  • Navmi (ninth day)
  • Dasmi (tenth day)
  • Ekadashi (eleventh day)
  • Dwadashi (twelfth day)
  • Trayodashi (thirteenth day)
  • Chaturdashi (fourteenth day)
  • Amavasya or Purnima (fifteenth day)

Unlocking the secrets of Adhik Maas in Hindu Calendar

Likewise the remaining days of the year are counted in Adhik maas also called Purushottam Mass. This month is the 13th month in the calendar. It is an outcome of cosmic occurrence. This year Adhik Maas starts from 18 July to 18 August 2023. Unlike the Gregorian calendar, remaining days are not adjusted in leap year. Instead, it cosmically occurs after every 32 months of the lunar calendar. It is also called mala mass as it is refrained from all the rituals and auspicious deeds.

This month is dedicated to the Supreme God for meditation (chintan) and prayers( bhajan). People do charity and donations in this month. Many households donate 32 items each day consecutively whole month as it comes after every 32 months in a lunar calendar.

One can not miss the names of months in Lunar Calendar

The names of months in lunar calendar are :

  • Chaitra Maas (March-April)
  • Vaishak Maas (April-May)
  • Jyestha Maas (May-June)
  • Aashad Maas (June-July)
  • Shravaan Maas (July-August)
  • Bhadprad Maas (August-September)
  • Aashwin Maas (September- October)
  • Kartik Maas (October-November)
  • Margashirsha (November-December)
  • Pausha Maas (December-January)
  • Magha Maas (January-February)
  • Falgun Maas ( February-March)


Thus, we finish the blog with all the research and readings we have carried out. Hence, we infer that the Hindu Calendar is vast and has many complicated calculations and applications all over the country as compared to the Gregorian calendar.

Keep growing with us.

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67 thoughts on “Unveiling the secrets of Panchang-Hindu Calendar

  1. Very informative write up. I will keep following your blog to know more about Hinduism.

    1. Thank you Mr. Singhania for your kind words. Yes, do follow us for more updates on Hinduism and spirituality.

    1. Thank you Ms Prabha for your valuable feedback. Kindly keep following us for more information on Hinduism and spirituality.

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